SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION AND SEMIQUANTIFICATION OF DNA DAMAGE IN NORMAL AND APOPTOTIC CELLS: TRIPLE-IMMUNOFLUORESCENT LABELING USING DAPI, ANTIBODIES, AND TUNEL.
We developed a triple-labeling immunofluorescence technique that simultaneously identifies total DNA (DAPI), DNA damage (antibodies), and dead cells [terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells] and a method that semiquantifies DNA damage in paraffin-embedded tissues. Using this technique in combination with our analysis method, scientists can now simultaneously detect and compare the relative amounts of DNA damage of almost any kind (except single-strand and double-strand breaks), using indirect fluorescent antibody labeling, in both normal and dying cells of different tissues. Simultaneous labeling of DNA damage and dead or TUNEL-positive cells can reduce processing costs and analysis time, and can lead to discoveries concerning how cells die from different DNA damages. We used increasing doses of UV (290 to 400 nm) radiation to create DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts that kill some of the cells in 3-dimensional tissue-engineered skin and vaginal samples. We describe a protocol that reliably detects and semiquantifies DNA damage in both normal and apoptotic cells. We show this triple-labeling immunofluorescence technique and analysis method yields linear UV dose response curves for damage to DNA bases that allows semiquantification of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and calculation of its repair rate (T=1 and 24 h), whereas TUNEL allows quantification of the number of apoptotic cells. Scientists can now create beautiful fluorescent pictures that simultaneously detect DNA damage in both normal and apoptotic cells to assess and semiquantify the damage to understand better how different insults lead to the cell’s demise.
6-4 photoproducts, apoptotic cells, Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, DAPI, DNA damage, dUTP nick end-labeling, EpiVaginal(VLC-100-FT), MelanoDermFT(MEL-300-FT-C), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, triple-labeling immunofluorescence, TUNEL
UVA, UVAII, UVB
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