Evaluation of phototoxicity of tattoo pigments using the 3 T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test and a 3D human reconstructed skin model
Phototoxicity due to dermally impregnated compounds exposed to ultraviolet radiation is associated with skin inﬂammation. The phototoxicity potential of active substances applied to the skin should be evaluated. Pigments are widely used for tattoos, and hypersensitivity reactions, such as photoallergic dermatitis, are possible tattoo related complications. However, the phototoxicity of these chemicals is not well known. In this study, we evaluated the phototoxicity potential of six tattoo pigments, cadmium sulﬁde, carbazole, cadmium selenide, mercury (II) sulﬁde, chromium oxide, and cobalt aluminate, using in vitro methods—3 T3 neutral red uptake (NRU) phototoxicity test (PT) and a 3D human reconstructed skin model (EpiDerm). The validated 3 T3 NRU PT indicated the phototoxicity potential of carbazole and cadmium sulﬁde. The 3D human skin model conﬁrmed that only carbazole was phototoxic. The 3 T3 NRU PT data corresponded well with those from the 3D skin model and suggested the need to employ several test systems for ﬁnal phototoxicity assessment. In addition to the results obtained using 3 T3 NRU PT, further testing on 3D skin models may better reﬂect the bioavailability of a given chemical in the skin.
phototoxicity, tattoo pigments, 3T3 neutral red uptake, EpiDerm, UVA
cadmium sulfide, carbazole, cadmium selenide, mercury (II) sulfide, chromium oxide, cobalt aluminate, chlorpromazine
Request a copy of this paper, click here.