EFFECTS OF ANTIOXIDANT INGREDIENTS ON HUMAN SKIN: FROM CELL CULTURE TESTING TO HUMAN CLINICAL TRIALS.
Cosmetic chemists have included Vitamins A, C, and 12 and other similar ingredients into skin care and cosmetic products for many years now. These ingredients and their derivatives were originally incorporated into those products for their effects in improving the appearance and feel of the skin. It has been well documented that Vitamins A and C help make the skin appear younger looking. It is also well known that Vitamin E improves the feel of the skin making it smoother and softer. Because of the readily perceived efficacy of these ingredients, consumers seek out products featuring these ingredients. Based upon the efficacy and consumer desirability, these ingredients have become very prevalent in skin care, cosmetic and even over-the-counter (OTC) drug products. The levels of these materials incorporated into personal care products are generally low since high concentrations can cause contact irritation and/or allergic contact dermatitis. Additionally, these materials are relatively expensive and some of them are difficult to stabilize in formulations. During the past three decades, research has shown the importance of these ingredients among the various antioxidant components of the skin. Research has also shown that following a significant exposure of the skin to the ultraviolet light, the amounts of these antioxidants present in the skin are significantly depleted. However, the topical application of antioxidants as delivered from cosmetic, skin-care, and over-the-counter (OTC) drug products have been shown to help boost the skin’s antioxidant capacity.
Antioxidant ingredients, Antioxidants, Cosmetics, EpiDerm, Human clinical trials, Human skin, MTT, MTT ET-50 tissue viability assay, MTT assay, Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products , Phototoxicity, Skin-care products, Sun screens, UV, UVA, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E
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