Karande1, P., Arora2, A., Pham3, T.K., Stevens3, D., Wojicki3, A., Mitragotri2,3, S. 1Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, United States. 2Biomolecular Science and Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, United States. 3Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, United States.

Transcutaneous immunization, topical application of vaccines on skin, provides several advantages over needle based immunization. However, simple topical application of vaccines does not generate sufficient immune response due to limited transport of vaccines across the stratum corneum of skin. Here we report that chemicals used in common skin products can enhance the immunogenicity of topically applied antigens. Six hundred formulations of commonly used chemicals were screened systematically for their potency (delivery of antigen) in vitro. A selected subset of these formulations was subsequently tested for their adjuvanticity (activation of immune response) in vitro. Lead formulations were tested in vivo for their ability to generate antibody titers against topically applied ovalbumin, a model antigen. Lead formulations were significantly more effective in generating anti-ovalbumin IgG titers. Our results demonstrate that chemical formulations can be successfully used to deliver antigens and that such formulations can be rationally designed by combinatorial screening of individual chemical components.


Adjuvanticity, Adjuvanticity potential, Anionic surfactants, Azone like molecules, Cationic surfactants, EpiDerm™ , Fatty acid , Fatty esters, IL-1á, Nonionic surfactants, Permeation enhancer, Transcutaneous immunization, Vaccine administration, Vaccine delivery, Zwitterionic surfactants

Materials Tested

Benzyldodecyldimethylammonium chloride, Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide , Chembetaine oleyl , Cocamidopropyl betaine , Cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine , Decyl pyrrolidone , Dodecyl amine , Dodecylpyridinium chloride , Isopropyl myristate , Lauric acid , Limonene , Menthol , Methyl laurate , Methyl pyrrolidone , Nicotine sulfate , Octyltrimethylammonium bromide , Oleic acid , Phenyl piperazine , Polyethyleneglycol ether , Polysorbate 20 (Tween 20) , Sodium laureth sulfate , Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate , Sodium lauryl sulfate , Sodium octyl sulfate , Sodium oleate , Sorbitan monolaurate (Span 20) , Tetracaine , Triton X100

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