Innovative In Vitro Strategy for Assessing Aluminum Bioavailability in Oral Care Cosmetics

Giorgia Allaria, Giulia De Negri Atanasio, Tommaso Filippini, Federica Robino, Lorenzo Dondero, Francesco Soggia, Francesca Rispo, Francesca Tardanico, Sara Ferrando, Stefano Aicardi, Ilaria Demori, Jan Markus, Katia Cortese, Matteo Zanotti-Russo, and Elena Grassel

Aluminum is an element found in nature and in cosmetic products. It can interfere with the metabolism of other cations, thus inducing gastrointestinal disorder. In cosmetics, aluminum is used in antiperspirants, lipsticks, and toothpastes. The aim of this work is to investigate aluminum bioavailability after accidental oral ingestion derived from the use of a toothpaste containing a greater amount of aluminum hydroxide than advised by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). To simulate in vitro toothpaste accidental ingestion, the INFOGEST model was employed, and the amount of aluminum was measured through the ICP-AES analysis. Tissue barrier integrity was analyzed by measuring transepithelial electric resistance, and the tissue architecture was checked through light microscopy. The margin of safety was also calculated. Overall, our results indicate that the acute exposure to aluminum accidentally ingested from toothpastes is safe for the final user, even in amounts higher than SCCS indications.


EpiIntestinal (SMI-100), aluminum, biological availability, consumer product safety, toothpastes, oral care cosmetics, TEER, simulated salivary fluid, simulated gastric fluid, simulated intestinal fluid, INFOGEST model, aluminum chloride (AlCl3), Alcian-Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS), mucopolysaccharides. aluminum hydroxide AL(OH)3.

Materials Tested

Aluminum hydroxide, Aluminum chloride

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