INCREASED HYALURONAN PRODUCTION AND DECREASED E-CADHERIN EXPRESSION BY CYTOKINE-STIMULATED KERATINOCYTES LEAD TO SPONGIOSIS FORMATION.
The pathogenesis of spongiosis, which is a well-known hallmark of acute eczema, is not fully understood. We sought to clarify the mechanism for the influx of tissue fluid into the epidermis and the loss of cohesion between keratinocytes in acute eczema that result in spongiosis. We first demonstrated increased intercellular accumulation of hyaluronan (HA) in the spongiotic epidermis by immunochemical staining using hyaluronicacid-binding protein (HABP) and augmented hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) mRNA expression by spongiotic keratinocytes using in situ hybridization. We also showed that the epidermis where the intercellular space was strongly stained with HABP showed weaker expression of membrane E-cadherin. Next, we demonstrated—by a sandwich assay using HABP, real-time PCR, and flow cytometry—that, among various cytokines, only IL-4, IL-13, and IFN-ã increased HA production, enhanced HAS3 mRNA expression, and decreased membrane E-cadherin expression by normal human epidermal keratinocytes in both low- and high-Ca media. Finally, we demonstrated IL-4, IL-13, their combination, and IFN-ã could induce intercellular space widening of the epidermis with increased HA accumulation and decreased E-cadherin expression in the organotypic culture. These results suggest that the augmented production of HA and the decreased E-cadherin expression by keratinocytes stimulated with IL-4/IL-13 or IFN-ã cause spongiosis in acute eczema.
E-cadherin, EPI-100-NMM, Eczema, EpiDerm (EPI-200), EpiDerm culture (EPI-200), Hyaluronan, Hyaluronan production, Hyaluronicacid-binding protein (HABP), Intercellular bridges, Intercellular space, Spongiosis
IFN-ã, IL-13, IL-4
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