Taylor1, J.M., Street2, T.L., Hao3, L., Copley1, R., Taylor1, M.S., Hayden4, P.J., Stolper4, G., Mott1, R., Hein2, J., Moffatt3, M.F., Cookson3, W.O.C.M. 1Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford, England, 2Oxford Centre for Gene Function, Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, Oxford, England, 3National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, England, 4MatTek Corporation, Ashland, Massachusetts, United States of America.

The mammalian epidermis is a continually renewing structure that provides the interface between the organism and an innately hostile environment. The keratinocyte is its principal cell. Keratinocyte proteins form a physical epithelial barrier, protect against microbial damage, and prepare immune responses to danger. Epithelial immunity is disordered in many common diseases and disordered epithelial differentiation underlies many cancers. In order to identify the genes that mediate epithelial development we used a tissue model of the skin derived from primary human keratinocytes. We measured global gene expression in triplicate at five times over the ten days that the keratinocytes took to fully differentiate. We identified 1282 gene transcripts that significantly changed during differentiation (false discovery rate ,0.01%). We robustly grouped these transcripts by K-means clustering into modules with distinct temporal expression patterns, shared regulatory motifs, and biological functions. We found a striking cluster of late expressed genes that form the structural and innate immune defences of the epithelial barrier. Gene Ontology analyses showed that undifferentiated keratinocytes were characterised by genes for motility and the adaptive immune response. We systematically identified calcium-binding genes, which may operate with the epidermal calcium gradient to control keratinocyte division during skin repair. The results provide multiple novel insights into keratinocyte biology, in particular providing a comprehensive list of known and previously unrecognised major components of the epidermal barrier. The findings provide a reference for subsequent understanding of how the barrier functions in health and disease.


Affymetrix, Barrier formation, Calcium binding, Calcium-binding genes, Cluster analysis, Differentiation, EPI-200-1S, EPI-200-3S, EPI-201, EpiDerm 200, Epidermal differentiation complex, Epithelial barrier, Gene expression, Gene ontology, Innate immune defences, Keratinocyte differentiation, K-means clustering, Major histocompatibility complex (MHC), MHC Histone 1 cluster, Physical clustering

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